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Richard is the Founder of Astroten, a consultancy that applies findings from behavioural science to marketing.
Richard was Deputy Head of Evidence at Manning Gottlieb OMD, the most awarded media agency in the history of the IPA Effectiveness awards.
He started his career as a media planner 17 years ago, working on accounts such as Coke, 118 118 and comparethemarket.com, before moving into ... Read more on Richard Shotton
The Choice Factory is both practical and deeply profound due to Richard Shotton's expertise from extensive research as well as from advertising. So, if you are to read only one book that will make you master of behavioural economics I would highly recommend - The Choice Factory. Lars Bo Christiansen - CMO / Marketing Director
If you’re in the business of influencing people then Richard’s book is a must read. It provides a welter of practical advice on how behavioural science can be harnessed by businesses . Dan Pink, author of When: The Scientific Secrets of Perfect Timing
The Choice Factory is a fun easy read packed with sound research that marketers can apply to their businesses immediately. Nir Eyal, author of Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
"The Choice Factory" is the most popular new book for marketers so far this year. Well read, well discussed and well liked from everyone, it casts an eye on the the history of how customers come to given decisions, and the psychological background behind them doing so. " Imperica
"Perhaps one of the best aspects of working in marketing and advertising is being given the chance to take on interesting challenges, to overcome tricky obstacles and to solve, at times strange but fascinating, puzzles. For those working in marketing and advertising with a desire to be more effective in addressing these challenges, obstacles and puzzles, Richard Shotton's entertaining and practical book is the ideal guide." Robert Thackerey, AdMap
‘… the easiest to read and most actionable.’ Marketing Effectiveness Reading List – Part 2
I would therefore recommend this book to the whole marketing profession as it will enable us all to stand back and consider how we influence consumers to buy products or participate in market research. Well worth the read! Alan Wilson, University of Strathclyde, UK
Richard is genuinely interested in human behaviour and how it drives our decisions; this book is easy to read and not dry based in the subject-matter. It is a must-read for modern marketers. IAA Education Matters Newsletter - Q2 2018
This beautifully written book brings to life the counter-intuitive ways in which we make our everyday decisions. Jules Goddard, Fellow, London Business School
"At last someone has written a commonsense, practical guide to using behavioural science to sell things. It is backed by lots of research and working examples drawn from the author's own experience and his encyclopedic knowledge of the industry. In short, this is a classic advertising textbook in the making.” Steve Harrison, British copywriter, creative director and author
If you're a marketer, understanding what really makes people tick - as opposed to what they might tell you - is vital. This book takes us on an elegant, witty and digestible tour of the 25 main principles of behavioural science. Richard Shotton has read widely so that you don t have to, but he gives full credit to his many sources should you wish to pursue any of the topics further. This is a delightful and indispensable read for anyone in marketing, particularly those early in their careers. Tess Alps, Chair of Thinkbox, the UK's marketing body for commercial broadcasters
Richard Shotton's application of behavioural economics is bang on the button. This book is timely, insightful, fascinating and entertaining. Dominic Mills, ex-editor of Campaign
Richard delivers a wealth of cases proving the efficacy of working with, rather than against, the grain of human nature. This is catnip for the industry. Phil Barden, author of 'Decoded: The Science Behind Why We Buy
A guide to your own mind, a roadmap of your blind spots, a toolkit for better advertising. The Choice Factory employs robust behavioral science in an approachable manner to demonstrate how you make and influence decisions. Synthesizing a vast body of research, live experiments and numerous examples, he shows that there is a bias for every occasion and how to use them as tools to craft better communications. Faris Yakob, author of Paid Attention
A top-class guide for those who want to put BE to work, rather than just illuminate their journey to work. Mark Earls, author of 'Herd'
Comprehensive, compelling and immensely practical, the Choice Factory brings the building blocks of behaviour change together in one place. Richard Huntington, Chairman & Chief Strategy Officer, Saatchi & Saatchi
Actionable, memorable and powerful... Shotton has taken the jewels of behavioral economics and made them practical. Seth Godin, author of ‘All Marketers are Liars’
In a cacophony of overstatement, Richard Shotton possesses a melodious and balanced voice. In this short but powerful tome you can learn about how marketing actually does influence consumers. Or, for the more prosaic among us, how to get people to re-use towels, buy wine when German Oompah music is playing and select a broadband supplier by mentioning Charing Cross Station. The book also mentions me (all too briefly) which I also find enticing. Mark Ritson, columnist for Marketing Week and Professor at Melbourne business school
Most books in this area are academic and dry as dust. If you want to know how research and sociology can impact on real life in the real world, Richard's book will show you - using simple words and examples that real people can understand. Dave Trott - creative director, author of Predatory Thinking and founder of three creative agencies
This book is a Haynes Manual for understanding consumer behaviour. You should buy a copy - and then buy another copy to give to one of the 97% of people in marketing who are too young to remember what a bloody Haynes Manual is. Rory Sutherland, columnist for The Spectator and Executive Creative Director, Ogilvy One
An interview with Richard Shotton and Rory Sutherland
During the podcast, Richard Shotton, remarked "The book is called Choice Factory. The overall theme is how to apply social psychology and ...
According to the peak-end rule, events are remembered for their most remarkable and final moments, so to stand out brands should concentrate on improving these aspects of the customer ...Read more
The author of a new book examining the behavioural biases that influence what we buy tells Ellen Hammett how advertisers can make their campaigns more effective.
... There are lessons the ...
M+Ad! - New Zealand
“This book is a Haynes Manual for understanding consumer behaviour. You should buy a copy – and then buy another copy to give to one of the 97% of people in marketing who are too young to ...Read more
Roger Dooley Blog
Would you trust a doctor who didn’t understand physiology? An engineer with no knowledge of physics? Given how obvious those answers seem, it’s surprising that so many companies trust marketers ...Read more
Branding Strategy Insider
By recognizing the limitations of advertising brands can focus their advertising resources where they work best. This means that more brands will be able to afford a constant presence among key ...Read more
Richard Shotton’s new book The Choice Factory is about the decisions we make every day, and the biases that complicate them. Richard sat down with WARC’s Sam Peña-Taylor to talk about the origin ...Read more
The danger of confirmation bias is just one of the topics in Richard Shotton's new book, The Choice Factory, as he explains in this excerpt for Campaign.
Features an excerpt from the ...
Marketing triage: why brands need to categorise consumers into three groups
Dominique Jean Larrey, chief surgeon in Napoleon’s Army, developed the concept of triage on nineteenth century French ...
Branding Strategy Insider
The agencies that focus most on the unchanging man will win the insight war.
Contributed by Branding Strategy Insider by: Richard Shotton, the author of The Choice Factory, a new book on how to ...
Richard Shotton, author of “The Choice Factory” - which has won praise from Dave Trott, Rory Sutherland and Mark Ritson - will explore how findings from behavioural science can improve ...Read more
Quartz at work
An article adapted from the book The Choice Factory:
For those prepared to embrace a modicum of career risk then the best chance of growing your brand is to flaunt your flaws. The principal-agent ...
The Marketing Institute has announced speakers from Lego, Wieden+Kennedy, Brainlabs and Foresight Factory as part of the DMX Dublin 2018 line-up...
Richard Shotton is deputy head of evidence at ...
Many of us think we're too smart to fall for advertisers' tricks. We won't buy something because of a catchy jingle or famous spokesperson. But if you think those obvious tactics are the only things ...Read more
Contrary to common belief, consumers are more likely to take action if the incentive is of uncertain value, offering a way to make loyalty schemes both cheaper and more effective.
... Not only are ...
Curiously, the book undersells itself in promising an exploration of 25 biases that influence what we buy. That’s not quite true: the book is far better than that. Instead of a codex of biases, ...Read more
Branding Strategy Insider
What Can Brands Learn From The Social Nature Of Humor?
The main point is that the wit of an ad is not just a creative issue but also one of context and media placement. The perception of humor can ...
If you have ever wondered what it is that influences our decisions to buy stuff, then it helps it you can get a handle on what techniques marketers employ to engage with their potential customers. ...Read more
Possibly bringing both conscious and unconscious biases to this week's column, Dominic Mills reviews and digests the Choice Factory - Richard Shotton's behavioural science bestseller
... It’s a ...
... Essential reading
... Richard Shotton’s excellent paperback is a prime example of observation and investigation in the field of comprehending what makes each of us tick. Its contents are ...
Mark Pollard, Strategy CEO, Mighty Jungle, New York
Talking about biases, flaws and mirror strengths, the principal-agent problem, and the decline in rhyme.
Listen to the podcast: https://www.dropbox.com/s/65h8k3n6kvo96cn/audio_only.m4a?dl=0
It’s better to base marketing decisions on experiments of Nobel Laureates than on the opinion of the most eloquent person in the board room.
How do we make choices – any choices, all choices? ...
The Institute of Direct and Digital Marketing
The smartest brands have recognised that exhibiting a flaw makes them more appealing, and they have use the pratfall effect to stand-out from their competitors.
Consider, the DDB VW campaign. From ...
The Marketing Institute has announced speakers from Lego, Wieden + Kennedy, Brainlabs and Foresight Factory for the industry's biggest annual conference.... DMX Dublin 2018 will involve over 30 ...Read more
The Creative Persuader
Very occasionally ... a book will come along that I can happily suggest in these instances. Because it truly covers a lot of ground in an accessible way. Luke Sullivan’s ...
Branding Strategy Insider
A taste of the article by Richard Shotton:
It seems obvious that many of our spending decisions are influenced by the past. Consider how you pick a restaurant. You think about your previous ...
Marketing & Media at Bizcommunity.com
If you're in the persuasion game and you've ever wanted to better understand your consumers' purchase behaviour, this is the interview for you! I caught up with Richard Shotton, deputy head of ...Read more
Author Richard Shotton reveals how you can become a savvier shopper
Shotton says that shoppers rely on a series of short-cuts to make decisions and it’s these short-cuts that are prone to biases ...
(Text below has been translated)
Neuromarketing shows a similar development as shopper marketing. Both disciplines are relatively young, but all two have full growth potential. And moreover, ...
Talk Radio Europe
Listen to the interview with Richard and Hannah Murray when they discuss the book in detail and discuss some of the 25 behavioural biases that influence the way we buy. The discussion around social ...Read more
Richard Shotton's new book The Choice Factory is intended to be a handbook to marketeers and ad people ... If you're not one of those people it gives valuable insight into the mind games we consumers ...Read more
Richard Shotton, author of The Choice Factory, argues that tech alone isn’t changing people’s core behaviours. Canvas8 speaks to Shotton about the behavioural biases that can be applied to help ...Read more
Shotton’s book covers 25 scientifically demonstrated biases that can inform better advertising. Some have been used intuitively for years, like the power of social proof to persuade people, as ...Read more
A number of new books make it into my personal selection of enrichment and extension reading for A level economists as we head into the Spring.... Behavioural economics fans will enjoy Richard ...Read more
The Marketing Society
The best way to ensure brands strive for distinctiveness is to popularise the principal-agent problem. If following the herd becomes equated with putting one’s career ahead of the brand’s needs, ...Read more
The IPA Podcast
"Great, new book."
"I've noticed a few people reading it on public transport so ...obviously it's selling. Brilliant!"
"I absolutely recommend it for anyone who is yet to get hold of a copy ... ...
Many of the commercials you encounter every day will be using psychological tactics
You might think you’re immune to advertising – that your decisions are entirely conscious and rational. But ...
Richard Shotton explores why marketers are so fad-obsessed, using the unlikely metaphor of the penalty shoot out.
Marketers need to apply the lessons of penalty taking to brands. If we do we’ll ...
Richard Shotton’s The Choice Factory is the best-selling book on advertising in the UK at the moment. Shotton helps you to understand what really drives and influences decisions, building on ...Read more
Behavioural insights show targeting the average consumer can backfire among key groups, even it succeeds among the majority, which is an argument for in-depth research on individual ...Read more
Marketers who openly admit their brands' flaws and follow a line of self-deprecation can be business successes, British adman and 'Choice Factory' author Richard Shotton claims.
MullenLowe London's former head of strategy says Richard Shotton's book The Choice Factory is a must-read for anyone in marketing and advertising - not just planners.
... The Choice Factory by ...
There’s no evidence that print has lost its impact on a per-impression basis.
Q. Has print as a medium lost its impact?
RS: There’s no evidence that print has lost its impact on a ...
.... Think about Listerine, which publicised its bitter taste with the strapline ‘The taste you hate, twice a day’ ....
The campaign recognised that exhibiting a weakness didn’t make them ...
Human reaction to numbers is riddled with quirks. Richard Shotton’s new book The Choice Factory examines the ability of businesses to harness these biases to influence consumers. For example, ...Read more
Branding in Asia
Shotton's interesting book follows a single person through their day and analyzes 25 of their decisions.
Read the full interview with Bobby McGill here: ...
Cognitive biases affect professionals as well as consumers. One of the most relevant biases that sometimes afflicts media planners is the false consensus effect.Read more
International Journal of Market Research
... Well worth the read!!
... Many of the books on behavioural science and behavioural economics are slightly stuffy and can often be a difficult read, but this is the exact opposite. It is also ...
As more and more brands bombard their customers with a monotonous list of reasons why they’re wonderful, Richard Shotton details why we need to embrace the negative. ... This article has been ...Read more
Branding Strategy Insider
In his latest article, Richard Shotton looks at delivering distinctiveness and looks at resolving the principal-agent problem.
Knowing that your ads need to be distinctive is helpful, ...
Marketing Week reviews the latest books for marketers.
... In his book, which is an overview of how behavioural science experiments can be applied to marketing and advertising, he runs through the ...
What do you think is the greatest ad campaign ever? Coca-Cola? Apple? Levi's? All great choices, but I'd argue that the most effective ad of all time was by De Beers. And part of its success was ...Read more
The Choice Factory author Richard Shotton argues that the methodology behind brand purpose is flawed, and is being perpetrated by adlanders who want to feel better about their jobs.Read more
Branding Strategy Insider
Brands must recognize that much of advertising’s impact comes from implicit communication. There is a role, even in the era of procurement, for bold brand statements. The occasional extravagance ...Read more
Brewin Dolphin magazine
In a new book called The Choice Factory... the author Richard Shotton highlights the phenomenal power of social proof to change consumer behaviour. For example, what is the best way to get hotel ...Read more
Most gourmets would agree that the best food available to man is the salt and vinegar chip. The combination of crunch, vinegary bite and salty tang is unbeatable. But the chip aficionados among you ...Read more
Richard argued that goalkeepers have an implicit bias towards diving because that is the norm and what people expect a goalkeeper to do. If you dive and don’t make a save it’s seen as bad luck - ...Read more
‘… the easiest to read and most actionable.’Read more
Opinion piece by author of The Choice Factory Richard Shotton. "...It’s not just that these marketing predictions misguide us. There’s also an opportunity cost. Our fixation with the future ...Read more
"Perhaps one of the best aspects of working in marketing and advertising is being given the chance to take on interesting challenges, to overcome tricky obstacles and to solve, at times strange but ...Read more
The key point about the cobra effect is that when you set a naïve target, it encourages behaviour that superficially meets that target, rather than the underlying goal.
The targets set on most ...
In his hugely popular book The Choice Factory, Richard Shotton explains how behavioural science can be applied to advertising and how a few simple tricks can help marketers improve the effectiveness ...Read more
"There are lots of amazing books about popular psychology, but few of them apply it to advertising. I felt that there was a real gap for a practical, simple book that applied behavioural science to ...Read more
Marketers, like all humans, believe everyone is as interested in their work as they are, leading to ads that fall at the first hurdle by taking it for granted that they will be noticed.Read more
The Marketing Society: The Library
I think it’s well worth a read.
… One of my favourite chapters is about the power of personalisation, which is often ascribed to the fact that our subconscious deals with most of our sensory ...
Shotton is considered one of the brightest minds in the UK advertising industry. As Deputy Head of Evidence at the media agency Manning Gottlieb OMD, he works with some of the world’s leading ...Read more
… Says Shotton: "Over the last few years I've conducted dozens of experiments and worked with many brands and shown time and time again that the application of behavioural science improves ...Read more
The book provides invaluable knowledge for you to act on. There’s something to learn and apply in every chapter. I particularly enjoyed the irrefutable proof that advertising has to be distinctive, ...Read more
Making use of behavioral science, which helps to understand how people make their decisions, can help companies solve this problem. This is what Richard Shotton expresses in his latest book for ...Read more
Have you ever noticed the posters in the doctor's office that tell how many people do not bother to show up for their appointments? Or seen the charity appeal on Wikipedia that explains how most ...Read more
BBC Radio 4
The Choice Factory by Richard Shotton featured on BBC Radio 4 Programme 'Nudge Nudge'.Read more
Brands must seek inspiration from beyond their category. If they do so, they will see one of the common factors of the few brands who have created a genuine step-change in their category is that they ...Read more
Your main task this afternoon is to interview the last two candidates for the position of manager on your team. At the close of the second interview you realise both candidates have the same relevant ...Read more
Richard Shotton’s book, The Choice Factory, investigates how behavioural science can be applied to advertising. In the following interview, Shotton elaborates further on this topic and the research ...Read more
The book "The Choice Factory" by Richard Shotton explores and explains the trends behind consumer behavior.
Throughout 25 chapters he explains how humans really make decisions
Read the full ...
Dennikn (Slovakian publication)
To read the full article here (assuming your Slovakian is up to scratch!)Read more
Instituto Mexicano de Economia del Comportamiento
Read the full article here.Read more
It’s safe to say that the marketing landscape has changed significantly in recent times. As a marketer, it’s very important to make sure you stay on top of trends, which becomes increasingly ...Read more
Read the full article here.Read more
Manning Gottlieb OMD's Richard Shotton uses behavioural psychology to show that the perfect brand strategy is to be imperfect.Read more
Brand purpose is literally up for debate when nay- and yay-sayers Richard Shotton (author, Marketing Week columnist and head of behavioural science at Manning Gottlieb OMD).Read more
In this extract from his new book, The Choice Factory: 25 Behavioural Biases That Influence What We Buy, Richard Shotton delves into the world of bias, an aspect of human nature that shapes our ...Read more
It seems obvious that many of our spending decisions are in uenced by the past. Consider how you pick a restaurant. You think about your previous visits: the taste of the food, the charm of the ...Read more
Brands must seek inspiration from beyond their category. If they do so they will see one of the common factors of the few brands who have created a genuine step-change in their category is that they ...Read more
"You must understand what triggers them in order to influence decisions," Shotton said, examining the behavior of people in the buying process and examining how these behaviors are coded ...Read more
The Holmes Report
The Echo Chamber talks to Richard Shotton and discusses whether PR needs to get a better grip on behavioural science.Read more
Businesses often default to trying to reshape objective reality. This tends to be eye-wateringly expensive and prohibitively time-consuming.Read more
Canadian Marketing Association
Richard Shotton, author of The Choice Factory, recently visited DDB Vancouver to talk to their staff about how behavioural science can be applied to advertising. Below he covers some of the main ...Read more
In this week’s episode of “Marketing Today,” I speak with Richard Shotton, author of the book, “The Choice Factory: 25 Behavioural Biases That Influence What We Buy,” which was published ...Read more
The Choice Factory author told The Drum that purpose is but a single tool available to marketers. He said: “If you only have one tool, you force all your problems to fit that tool. To a man with a ...Read more
The Holmes Report
Richard Shotton, head of behavioural science at Manning Gottlieb OMD, published The Choice Factory early in 2017, outlining 25 common biases that affect consumers’ responsiveness to brand messages ...Read more
Shotton, who has answered the questions by email, was the guest speaker at the recently held professional conference of the Association of Magazines of Spain (ARI), where he gave a lecture on ...Read more
Left B.R.A.I.N Blog
On november 8 2018, Richard Shotton spoke at B.R.A.I.N.Creatives HQ in Amsterdam. The event was sold out, with guests coming from all over the Netherlands and even traveling from abroad. Shotton’s ...Read more
If you make a living from selling, or you want to understand more about how other people are selling stuff to you, then this is a good, quick-to-read primer on 25 behavioural biases that influence ...Read more
Building a brand is tough – what’s worse is that destroying a brand is easy. Standing on the top of the roof and shouting (ok, nationwide TV ads on a major sporting event) does not build a brand ...Read more
His book, The Choice Factory, was one of the top selling marketing books on Amazon last year and his 18 year career spans working for Coke, Lexus and comparethemarket.com.
The event has been ...
So, where many look forward Choice Factory looks back. Where the majority say go big, Richard Shotton says think small. That's why Choice Factory is the zag to many zigging books available to ...Read more
The Choice Factory by Richard Shotton – released February 2018
Richard Shotton sets out to help the reader understand what drives decisions and in turn, how they can then become the influencer ...
The Choice Factory is most aptly described as not just a book to read, it’s one that yearns to be used. By combining a plethora of anecdotes and creative examples, Shotton brings the topic of ...Read more
If you were at the PM Forum conference in September you’d have heard Richard Shotton explain how professional services firms can apply the findings of behavioural science to their marketing ... But ...Read more
South African Journal of Marketing Research
Excerpt from The Choice Factory by Richard Shotton.Read more
South African Journal of Marketing Research
If you follow marketing or market research, you will probably have at least heard of behavioural science. At the heart of this field is the premise that people don’t think deeply about every ...Read more
Business Book Awards
'The Choice Factory' has won the Sales and Marketing category in the 2019 Business Book Awards.Read more
Richard Shotton’s recent book The Choice Factory is arguably the most practical guide to behavioural economics, with an overview of how findings from behavioural science can be applied to marketing ...Read more
4. The Choice Factory | Richard Shotton | @rshotton
The aim of PR is to reach an audience through earned media to influence them: usually to buy your stuff. But if you don’t understand how your ...
More About Advertising
In fact, the case for behavioural economics in advertising goes further. As Richard Shotton argues in his brilliant book The Choice Factory, it improves quality too. If brands want sustainable ...Read more
Nudge; consumer psychology podcast
Did you know that companies spend millions trying to discover when customers have kids? In this episode I chat to best-selling author Richard Shotton about the power of habit. He explains how life ...Read more
There had been “too much description of behavioural biases and experiments, and not enough about the practical application” Richard Shotton told us when asked about the motivation behind his ...Read more
AQR: The Association for Qualitative Research
Webinar presented by Richard Shotton.Read more
**Translated from Italian** In his column Pasquale Diaferia takes inspiration from the book 'The Choice Factory' by Richard Shotton to remember that "if we do not let ourselves be influenced by the ...Read more
Richard Shotton believes that brands "overvalue the effects of technology" and that we are "irrational." His book 'The Choice Factory' is a 'bible' in the world of marketing.Read more
Richard Shotton is a behavioural scientist, the Founder of Astroten and an author.
What is the reason that restaurants don't put £ signs in front of their prices? Why do marketing campaigns with ...
Behavioural science identifies a range of profitable pricing tactics. Test which one works best for you.
Richard Shotton is founder of the consultancy Astroten and author of The Choice Factory, a ...
Speakers at Make Disruption Pay: Striking the Balance, will consider issues such as how firms can ensure marketing spending delivers short-term results while their investment builds brand loyalty ...Read more
This is an excerpt from Choice Factory: 25 behavioural biases that influence what we buy by Richard Shotton.Read more
Planning, BIM & Construction Today
The insight provided through The Choice Factory has allowed our industry to consider the ‘psycho-logical’ barriers to adopting offsite construction; unlocking a whole new approach for ...Read more
The Behaviours Agency
The generation effect is a memory bias, first reported by Norman Slamecka and Peter Graf at the University of Toronto in 1978. They devised a study to explore whether self-generated words are easier ...Read more
As Richard Shotton points out in his book about behavioural economics in advertising, The Choice Factory, at the 2001 launch of the iPod, most other mp3 players shipped with unremarkable headphones, ...Read more
Shotton is also the author of The Choice Factory, a book on how to apply findings from behavioural science to advertising. He started his career as a media planner 19 years ago, working on accounts ...Read more
The Times India
Richard Shotton, author and behaviourall science expert quoted the example to highlight the bias of overconfidence and how marketers tend to overlook behavioural science, while making marketing ...Read more
Richard Shotton, Behavioural Scientist and Author of ‘The Choice Factory’, said: “The way people claim to behave versus how they actually behave are two very different things. Recruitment is ...Read more
Publishers have a wealth of insight that quantifies the important role that magazines play in people’s lives. The affinity consumers have for the content they read, increases the likelihood of ...Read more
Behavioral scientist and author of The Choice Factory, Richard Shotton, explains why life-changing events such as we are living thorough now will change customers purchasing habits – and brands ...Read more
Behavioural scientist and author of The Choice Factory, Richard Shotton, explores how brands can harness the power of public statements to build trust.Read more
Humour is an excellent mechanism for coping with stress and cementing relationships, according to author of The Choice Factory, Richard Shotton.Read more
Research described by Richard Shotton, in his book, The Choice Factory, shows that, on average, only 8% of customers willingly switch brands. But, when there is a significant life event (e.g. ...Read more